Ceramic Coated and Non-Stick Cookware are Toxic

Ignore the Slick Advertising for Non-Stick

A non-stick, synthetic surface on cookware, is less durable than the underlying metal and is therefore reactive and toxic. With use, the coating will pit, scratch and wear off from the pan and into your food.  Don’t be seduced by advertisements for nonstick cookware. And don’t despair; there are safe, non-reactive alternatives.

Ceramic Coated Pans

To make the so-called ceramic coatings, a metal pot is dipped into or sprayed with a plastic (chemically based polymer) solution. As these synthetic, plastic-like coatings are softer than metal, the surface degrades with normal use. The life expectancy of a nonstick ceramic-coated pot is about one year. Once the synthetic coating wears thin, pits or scratches, toxic metals from the underlying metal can leach into foodstuffs. And the coating itself may contain toxic metals like arsenic.

Do NOT use non-stick ceramic cookware; it’s potentially toxic. However, superior 100% ceramic cookware is non reactive; it is not advertised as “non-stick” because foods will stick unless you add oil or water. 100% ceramic withstands erosion and temperatures exceeding 1800 degrees Fahrenheit. Also see Healthy Cookware; Food Tastes Best when Cooked in Clay; and 100% Ceramic: A Great Choice for Cookware.

Non-Stick Cookware Coated with a Synthetic Fluoropolymer

veggie samurai
Veggie Samurai

Also avoid Teflon or Teflon-like non-stick pans even if they are PTFE and PFOA free. If heated to 500 degrees Fahrenheit the polymers emit noxious fumes that are lethal to parakeets and certainly not healthy for humans. Once overheated, the coating starts to break down at the molecular level and toxic particles and gases, some of them carcinogenic, can be released.

So long before the pan is scratched, if it gets overheated, it’s reactive. Even though I never intend to boil a pot dry, I did so just last week. Had that pot been Teflon, its temperatures would have exceeded the safety limit.

Don’t be fooled by Swiss Diamond Cookware; the polymer used to make it is PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene); one of the same toxic chemicals found in Teflon. While titanium is an ingredient in the non-stick surface of Gotham Steel cookware, the non-stick fluoropolymer is synthetic and therefore reactive. For healthy cookware, favor 100% ceramic or earthenware; second best is stainless steel.

Aluminum Cookware

Aluminum cookware is reactive and taints your food with aluminum. When ingested, aluminum is deposited in various bodily tissues and can cause illness and even death; it’s also a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.

When new, Anodized Aluminum is non-reactive as the electrochemical anodizing process “locks in” the aluminum. I’ve read, but am yet to see studies, that older, or heavily used anodized aluminum pots may release aluminum.

Cast Aluminum pans are more stable than thin aluminum pans, but they are reactive and therefore not recommended.

As much as possible, avoid cooking with Aluminum Foil. A potato, for example, bakes just fine in its own jacket and doesn’t need to be foil wrapped.

Coda: Cookware is only part of the story of cooking and healthy eating, albeit a very important part. Knowing what foods may cause intolerances in our body is the most overlooked yet simple way to influence our health. In my book, Read Your Face, I show how to identify obvious clues about diet and health – things you can easily change for happier and healthier eating. Learn more about Face Reading and Diet.

May you be well nourished,

Rebecca Wood

323 Responses to Toxic Cookware and Cutlery

  1. WearEver non-stick baking pans are trash. Purchased one and the coating peeled off after 3 use’s. Contacted WearEver and both customer service and corporate contacts brushed me off. We baked a ham in the pan and it turned the meat gray, the coating came off and pan is nothing but a rusting hulk. Don’t buy them.

  2. […] with use (about 6 months), and that means that probably that coating is leeching into your food. According to Rebecca Wood, cookware that has a ceramic coating achieves that by first dipping a metal pot into plastic, […]

  3. Hello, Rebecca!
    “For 10% off on this excellent product, click on the Ceramcor link you’ll find in the right column of my web page”
    I can not find.

  4. Do you think non stick coated cooking knives are safe? Our relative gave us as a gift…but I generally don’t want to use non stick coated anything… thank your for your feedback:-)

    • All non-stick surfaces wear with use. As the non-stick polymer wears off from the utensil, it can end up contaminating your food.

  5. Thanks so much for your article. I’m having a hard time finding a safe choice for cookie sheets, pizza pan, etc. Are there good choices?

  6. I don’t see a lot of info regarding glass bakeware. We use borosilicate glass bakeware made in France. Is this considered a safe option? Also, I’ve seen many questions regarding Pampered Chef stoneware, but no clear cut answers regarding its safety. Please advise, thanks

    • Yes, glass is non-reactive and therefore a healthful option. Stoneware, like all ceramics, is a non-reactive and excellent choice. See my blog on ceramic cookware 🙂

  7. Rebecca,thank you for the warning. I’m living off campus and in the market for some pots and pans most preferably easy to clean. I saw an ad for some neogranite and biogranite cookware sets and need your advise on what to get because I really don’t know the difference between the two.

  8. Hi Rebecca,

    What are your thoughts on Emile Henry Gratin Dish? Does it matter if the color on the inside of a ceramic dish is red or brown or some other color? I would value your opinion very much.

  9. Hi Rebecca!

    I was wondering, what do you think of terracotta pans and the Emile Henry line?
    Do you think they would be as good as Xtrema? 🤔 ( They are the easiest available in my area with next day delivery 😁

    • Do you know anything about the clay pots from El Salvador? Blacken earthenware. I can’t find anything on them. I was told when I bought it that it was fine to cook with, and after treating it like I did my La Chamba I tried it out. When I went to glean it after making chicken, the paper towel picked up a good bit of residue. I’m just wondering how safe these can be..

      Thanks for your input.

  10. I have been searching for a safe tea pot/kettle that will work on a induction stovetop. Would appreciate any suggestions!

  11. Hi. Loved your article 🙂 I just saw an advert for Gotahm Steel pans with a ceramic titanium surface. Do you know anything about this brand and its safety? Many thanks 🙂

  12. Hello Rebecca. I appreciate all your knowledge as there are so many “healthy” options to wade through. I recently stumbled upon all ceramic cookware made in Colombia called Tierra Negra- with the same handmade/village made tradition for over 700 years. If I understand correctly terracotta is non reactive. However I am concerned about heavy metals that could be in the clay/soil etc and what the heat might do to them. Could you please tell me what you think as they are only sold by one company in the UK and I am in the USA and don’t see much information on this brand at all. They are gorgeous! Thank you for your help! Keep up the good work!

  13. Hi Rebecca, what is your thought on Le Creuset Forged Nonstick frying pan? Their ad said it is PFOA free and comes with a lifetime warranty. I am just wondering if there is other toxic material in it even if it is made without PFOA. Thanks for your advice in advance.


    • But what about PTFE? All non-stick surfaces are, by nature, synthetic and therefore reactive. Furthermore, this is an anodized aluminum pan. I’d pass on it.

  14. Hi Rebecca!! I wanted to know your thoughts on Lloyd pans also known as Manpans?? It’s made in the USA and they say :

    “ManPans are made of solid twelve-gauge aluminum with a hard-anodized coating and a special water-based mineral-like sealer.”

    “Our proprietary, non-toxic coatings are water-based and do not contain PTFE, PFOA, fluoropolymers, or any other toxic chemicals. Even more, these coatings are permanently bonded to all our cookware, and will NOT chip, bake, or flake off into your food through time and with use.”

    Does ManPans contain any PTFE, PFOA, or fluoropolymers?

    A: No, and no bare aluminum, nickel, chromium, iron, copper, PTFE, PFOA, or fluoropolymers are exposed to the food. ManPans don’t change the taste of your food because the surface is chemically neutral and won’t react with your food like most pan surfaces do.
    A: ManPans are Made in the USA in Spokane, Washington. The pans are made entirely in-house including anodizing so the elimination of outsourcing and additional transportation reduces our carbon footprint. Our processes are low impact and non-toxic, we use clean, renewable hydropower and we recycle our waste metal. More on green products found here.

    I was interested in them but wanted to know
    your opinion and comments on these pans specifically. I truly appreciate it.

    Thank You!!

    • You’re welcome. You’ll find the drawbacks of using anodized aluminum on the accompanying blog: Toxic Cookware. There are multiple healthful and 100% non-reactive choices!

    • Thank You for your input!!.. I just purchased a 14 piece starlite set yesterday since you recommended Xtrema.

      I have many cast iron skillets. And I used to have stainless steel cookware but noticed a rash on my hand so I stopped using it just last month after reading about nickel allergies and dermatitis. I think it’s from me using my saucepan to cook spaghetti sauce a few times and I would clean them with vinegar and baking soda and water. I didn’t know about possible leaching with acidic foods etc…

      Just to be safe. I also stopped using stainless steel cooking utensils. To avoid flare ups. Should I avoid all stainless steel?? I still have knives, eating utensils, strainers/colanders, measuring cups/spoon etc.. that are stainless steel but avoiding them for now. Is it ok for me to use those?? Or should I buy nickel free spoons and forks and silicone measuring cups/ spoons???
      Also my rice cooker is a Miracle Brand rice cooker with a 304 stainless steel insert. Should I stop using that as well??

      What are your thoughts on Vitaclay rice cookers and slow cookers????

      I truly appreciate your time and opinion and help with my concerns!
      Thank You so very much!!!!!

      • Perhaps you’re being overconcerned? I don’t know. But unless you are HIGHLY allergic to nickel, stainless steel cookware and cutlery is not problematic. The biggest concern with stainless is when it’s scoured and/or used to cook acidic ingredients. As heating expedites ion transfer, stainless is more a problem with cooked foods rather than in kitchen utensils.

        The most common cause of dermatitis, in my experience, is more often diet related.

        I’ve not used a vitaclay. They seem pricy and as you have the Xtrema, perhaps unnecessary.

        • Lol! Perhaps I am 😄
          … Thank You for your help and providing me very useful information. I appreciate you and your website.. And Thank You for taking your time to reply 😀 May God Bless You in All Things!!!

  15. I don’t get it…All I see is no no no. What in the world should I cook with? I don’t disagree with anything you’ve said but… what am I supposed to cook with? 🙂

  16. Hi
    Thank you for the information.I have a question for you; What do you think about granite cookware? Is it safe?

    • Graniteware is enamel and therefore it is non-reactive and safe. However, it easily chips.
      Whereas Granite Cookware, and all other non-stick cookware, is NOT recommended.

  17. Hi Rebecca

    Quick question re cooking utensils, spoons/spatula s etc, is the creuset cooking utensils non toxic, it states they use silicon or stainless steel?i don’t know much about silicone. I am struggling to find a set that is non toxic in the UK. Any suggestions? Many thanks, angie

    • Thanks Rebecca, I had a look at the healthy cookware article and understand re silicone, it doesn’t seem to be the best option. I don’t want to use bamboo, am I right in thinking therefore that stainless steel is the way to go re cooking utensils. Don’t want it to scratch my silit pan. I am so confused!

      • Perhaps you’re overthinking this one? It’s really not that hard. I have wood, bamboo, silicone and stainless utensils and I use the one best suited to the purpose. Using a silicone spatula to scrape out a pot is different than cooking in silicone.

  18. Hello,
    this article was very helpful, but i was curious about the cuisinart green gourmet cookware. They claim:Scratch-resistant Ceramica ® nonstick coating is PTFE- and PFOA-free…what od you think? and it looks like the outside is hard anodized aluminium.
    Are these pans toxic, is Ceramica safe, how long will they last if they are safe?

    • Non-stick coatings are synthetic and NOT recommended as per the blog. I find the term “ceramica” devious as it implies that it is a true (and therefore non-reactive) ceramic.

  19. Hi Rebecca,
    You had me sold on Ceramcor’s Xtremea ceramic cookware but when I went to their website, I saw it was made in China. That burst my bubble as I want to stay away from Chinese made. Can you recommend any ceramic cookware made in North America or Europe??

    • Someone has mentioned such a pot in a comment on this page or another of my cookware pages about an Amercian made one, read through and you should find it. Sorry, I don’t remeber the name. Re. Xtream, I belive there is a difference between a product designed and backed by a reputable American team (that’s produced in China) and one that’s not backed by a reputable company.

      • Carol-
        Happy about your choice to buy Made in America but I’ve realized that with ceramic, the Chinese have a leg up on us. They’ve been the worldwide leader in ceramics for thousands of years- no joke. Besides, what do you call the very finest piece of ceramic that you have in your home… China. That’s not a brand name.

  20. I’ll stick with my cast iron or stainless steel pans thanks. I stay far, far away from xtrema. I’m not impressed with their products and they received poor review after poor review on amazon. I do agree with you that we should stay away from anything non-stick. My cast iron, which was perfectly seasoned, is as close to non-stick as I want to get. Oh, and another thing that xtrema does that I don’t approve of. They make false claims about cast iron that have no basis in fact.

  21. Hi Rebecca,

    I believe I need to own an xtrema ceramic but can you advise me anything about saladmaster? my mom’s friend is saying that I need to drop all my pans and have saladmaster. (She’s actually inviting us for hosting saladmaster dinner) (ssshhh!)

    • Saladmaster, like all stainless, is mildly reactive and therefore ultimately not your most healthful choice. Besides, I find it overpriced. Plus the ploy of the “party” pressures people into buying a whole set. The odds of anyone using all the pieces in a full set is unlikely.

  22. Dear Rebecca, your blogs are very interesting and contain important information regarding safe cookware. I spent a lot of time on other websites but their ideas didn’t present a set idea of what is safe and what isn’t. Thanks to your blog I have managed to rely on 100% ceramic cookware. One question I have regards enameled cast iron. The company Lodge from the United States produces enameled cast iron? Would this enameled coating contain lead/ cardium? I had read in one of the blogs to be aware of cheap Enamel on cast irons for they may contain lead.

  23. Hi Rebecca,

    My husband has been searching for frying pans for eggs, I.e., we don’t want the eggs to stick to the pan. Any suggestion?

    I just came across the Ozeri Stone Earth frying pan, what are your thoughts on these pans? Do they react to food and are they safe?


    • I keep hoping that someone will come up with a safe non-stick. In fact, I am looking for a new pan for eggs as well. Knowing little about ceramic, I headed to the Internet…..which brought me to this article. Although I am disheartened that I will have to continue making eggs as usual (via stainless steel pan), your post, Rebecca, was an informative read.
      As for cooking those eggs in a conventional NOT non-stick pan, try heating your pan first, then add a bit of cooking oil (grape seed oil, or better yet avocado oil has a higher smoke point). The pores of the pan open up when heated allowing the oil to fill in causing a non-stick-like surface. Once you have the pan surface covered you can turn down heat, add butter for flavor and eggs.

      • Thanks. btw, consider using quality oil for your eggs. Both grapeseed and avocado are highly refined–see my information on quality fats.

  24. This is getting out of hand if you really want to analyze everything there really is no 100% safe way no matter what utensils or heat mechanism used.

  25. I have been looking into ceramic fry pans to replace my non-stick ones. One thing that caught my eye was that most ceramic fry pans do not seem to also include a ‘lead free’ or ‘cadmium free’ notice. Most other non-stick pans (e.g. teflon etc.) do have this notice.

    Is this a concern when shopping for a ceramic fry pan?

  26. Hi,

    I am currently trying to swop out of non-stick and switch to cast iron. However, I had read more negative and positive about cast iron causing excessive iron intake especially if its used for daily cooking. Hence, what will be my next better option? In a budget constraints and non- budget constraints situation.
    Thanks and looking forward to your expertise advise.

    • I believe this would be your best option and after years of my own personal research this is what I eventually decided to go with Mercola ceramic cookware. The next best option although I’m not crazy about anything made with metal, would probably have to be stainless steel pots and pans but I’m not crazy about the nickel content. Other dinnerware that I would recommend would be clear glass which is branded lead and cadmium free, however don’t be fooled by this branding as I found out that most glass, ceramic and/or porcelain is more than likely never 100% lead free due to their natural raw materials. Hope this helps! 🙂

      • Jess….I concur with your research. One small detail, the “Mercola” cookware is actually made by Ceramcor as stated on the bottom of the Mercola pot. Yes, I agree, Ceramcor’s Xtremea ceramic cookware is my favorite.

  27. Thank you for the valuable information.
    Can you please tell me if a Granite coating is safe ? It is an Italian pan called Pentolpress ( Granite collection)

  28. Hi,

    I was wondering what you thought of the new ceramic coated pans from Zwilling? The line is called Sol Ceraforce .

    I have a nickel allergy, so finding good pans is always a challenge! I am hoping these past muster.


  29. Thank you for this article! Would you recommend SilverStone? I would like to find a mini and regular muffin tins that will be safe (non-toxic) to bake with. Any suggestions?

    Here’s what their muffin pan description says:
    “Top-quality SilverStone Ceramic Nonstick Bakeware is dependably PFOA- and PTFE-free, and provides beautiful release for everything from quick-mix popovers for weekend brunch or classic chocolate-marble cupcakes for a birthday surprise. The hybrid ceramic nonstick resists chipping and flaking, with easy cleanup afterward. The muffin pan features solid carbon steel construction and rolled bakeware rims that withstand warping and denting”

    • The term “non-stick” clearly tells you that the surface is synthetic. It is not a true ceramic. Don’t use it. Or use paper muffin liners when you bake.

      • Hello – Unless I read your posts wrong, you seem to recommend Silit – Silargan 100% ceramic pans – however they say they are “ceramic coated” I thought you said to stay away from coated products, and these pans are not 100% ceramic – am I looking at the wrong pan?

        Here is what their website says:

        Extra sturdy ferromagnetic steel is drawn in one piece to form the pan which is then coated with the proprietary high-tech ceramic coating, Silargan®, which becomes one with the steel core.

  30. Hi I am a little confused , you give a thumbs down to ceramic coated cookware and give a thumbs up to the Silit cookware that is also ceramic coated over metal. You say 100% ceramic is the way to go . Does’t 100% mean no metal . Silit has metal core. Where am I misunderstood?


    • Non-stick “ceramic” coatings applied to metal pots are made of manmade synthetic polymers and like any other “plastic” are reactive. Traditional ceramic cookware may be 100% ceramic (as a hand shaped casserole dish, for example) or it may be a layer of “clay-like” materials covering a metal core. Ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

  31. Read through this article and responses…my husband brought me home from Germany a Silit “Silitan” frying pan that says its non-stick, pfoa free. I cannot decipher if it’s chemical coating (The brand Slilt is traditional and legitimate ceramic cookware and non reactive. …your response to one such question above), or if this is also a traditional and ceramic coating at anytime? The pan is metal with the coating, black. Thanks!

  32. Dear Rebicca iam now in the middle of no where. I need a healthy pan but confused which is better Zepter or AMC both are very expensive here in Egypt and that’s why it is a big decision. Thank you for your reply in advance. Amira

  33. I finally found that La Gourmet’s claypot was made of the following ingredients (from inside to outside):
    – High heat resistant glaze from Spain
    – Natural glaze
    – Natural spodumene with lithium element from Australia
    – Natural glaze
    – High heat resistant glaze from Spain

    According to their lab analysis, the claypots contain less than 0.1% lead and 0.07% cadmium mg/l. Is this level of lead and cadmium acceptable?

    Is it still safe to continue using the claypot if the spodumene layer is exposed due to a long use of the claypot?

    Appreciate your advice. Thank you.

  34. Hi, thanks for sharing your knowledge.
    1) I wonder how we can verify whether a ceramic or clay pot sold at malls is really made of pure ceramic or clay? How can we tell that it is not ceramic coated instead?
    2) Is La Gourmet’s Black Truly Oriental Toughened Claypot really made of pure clay and safe for use as a cookware? There is no indication of which country the pot is made in (on the pot or the box). Not even the sales assistant knows about its country of origin.
    Appreciate your advice. Thanks.

    • A clay pot is a clay pot and not layered with metal. The so called “ceramic coated” non stick cookware is a cheap metal pot with a synthetic (so-called) ceramic non-stick surface. Regarding the product line you mentioned, I’m not familiar with them and they offer no information on their web page re. testing of lead or other potential toxins. Consider a reputable company.

  35. I have purchased an Aluminum Ceramic Coated PTFE & PFOA free skillet would you say it was safe to use?
    I have not used it yet as I didn’t notice it was Aluminum until I went to wash it for the first time.So I can still return it if it isn’t safe to use.
    Thank you very very much.

      • Hi Rebecca, I need help and assist. Yesterday I went to a factory sales fair and bought a cookplus ceramic wok 30cm . I not sure is it 100% ceramic. And i know u did say ceramic coating is not recommended can u help me to see this website and is from singapore. Amd another Q.is SILIT cookware isn’t it is also ceramic coating ? Pls advise me can i use the cookplus ceramic cookware wok 30cm thank you . http://www.locknlock.com.sg/products/proddetail.aspx?ID=506&CateID=52&Page=&BrandID=8

        • I do NOT recommend non-stick, polymer-based so-called “ceramic” coating. Yes, Silit has a ceramic surface layer but it’s 100% ceramic (not a synthetic) and is therefore non-reactive and recommended.

          • Thanks you Rebecca

            I’m still wondering that Silit’s pan is also “ceramic” coating.
            And I understand that Slit’s and Kyocera’s both use ceramic coating for their pan surface …but they are just different kind of technology to make their “ceramic”

            Sorry to ask, but could you please tell me how can we know which one is 100% ceramic and which one is a synthetic??

            Thank you again

          • A layer of ceramic in a Slit or Chantal pot, for example, is an actual layer of ceramic fused onto a metal core. A non-stick so-called “ceramic” finish, like Kyocera is a synthetic polymer coating.

  36. Hi – I’m sorry if this has already been asked… What about Paderno Granite fry pans? Any good? Thanks so much!

    • Rather than giving name brands (unless it’s a one of a kind product) I provide the details so that you can discern the quality of pots and pans. How empowering for you!

  37. I am interested in the safety of a cookware called Piral TerraCotta Italian made, it comes in different colors.

    I am looking for a safe healthy non toxic cookware and I like this one what do you think.

    thank you

    • What I offer is information so that you can discern the quality of a particular brand. The brands are legion. The guidelines for quality don’t change.

  38. Is Bar Keepers friend acceptable to use on stainless steel to clean? Also, are Emile Henry pizzas stone safe. What about Pfalzgraff pizza stones?

  39. Hi Rebecca,

    Thank you for your guidance in selecting healthy cookware. You are my newly found hero! I tossed out my non-stick years ago and after reading a good portion of your web site, I am glad to know I have made some good choices in what I am now cooking with. I have made somewhat of a hobby out of the science of cookware.

    One thing I have not seen discussed is copper cookware. I am considering purchasing some copper cookware and am thinking the stainless lined copper is fine from what I have read in your article and your answers to various questions. I am wondering what you think of using tin lined copper?

    I also wonder if you have formed an opinion on the silicon (not silicone) coated Komin light weight cast iron cookware that is being sold by Williams Sonoma?

    I have read where you say you like carbon steel woks. What is your opinion of the quick heat transfer that you would get from porcelin enamel coated carbon steel woks such as those made by Silit?

    Thanks in advance for your guidance.

    • You’re welcome. I’d opt for the stainless lined copper as tin, although non-reactive and rarely toxic to humans, is soft and less durable; it is damaged by high heat; it reacts to tri-sodium phosphate, meta-silicate and chlorine found in cleansers; and lastly it is a conflict mineral (cassiterite)mined in Eastern Congo and its trade contributes to violence in the region.

      On line reports indicate that the Komin light-weight with the silicon lining is hard to clean and high maintenance.

      As ceramic/porcelain retains heat longer than carbon steel, I find it counterproductive to use in a wok.

  40. I just received a t-gal grand chef ceramic non-stick set of two fry pans. I cannot tell if they are real ceramic. The packaging says “ceramic interior”. How can I tell? Should I keep or return? Many thanks as I have a one year old and we try to keep a natural, green home.

  41. hello please help …. I got a new OTG and it has a rotisserie and the skewer is of stainless steel coating and I did something to it .. it has a screw to tighten up those sides things wat did was I turned the screw tight and after removing the screw der are scratched and I can see the brass inside it does it affect the food skewed on it please help

  42. Are new BPA-free plastic containers safe to reheat lunch in the microwave? Supposedly, they don’t contain bisphenol anymore. Should be safe, right?

  43. Hi Rebeka,
    Thank for your the useful information about true ceramic and ceramic coating. I bought Silit Silargan pan but I have one question. Do small scratches on the interior of the silargan from the rough side of the sponge result in leaching or reacting with food?

  44. Hi Rebecca,
    I’m so glad I found your site and so appreciative of you taking the time to answer questions. Here’s mine:
    I recently became aware of the dangers you discuss and immediately chucked my non-stick pans. All of my other pots & pans are Farberware Stainless Steel and I thought we were safe. Then two weeks ago my sister told me that baking with foil (and I was broiling my fish on foil!) is unhealthy…and that got me researching…and then I discovered Extrema. For some reason I understood that all steel cookware is not healthy and I purchased a few pieces from Extrema and was going to discontinue using my Farberware and slowly replace piece by piece…and then I found your site.
    I examined my Farberware pots & pans and there are very fine scratches on the inside bottom, not deep scratches. The kind of scratches that are visible mainly when putting it up to a light. Are these type scratches a problem justifying replacing all of my “very expensive” Farberware pots and Pans? I actually did the “baking soda” test and it tasted awful after cooking in my 8 & 10qt pots. Do you know if this test is a reliable test to determine if there are toxins leaching?
    I thank you in advance for taking the time to answer.

  45. Hi Rebecca, I have two questions.

    1. What are your thoughts about the cookware set “Masterclad” that has a 5-ply stainless steel system, which does have aluminum, titanium and ceramic in the layers, it is also nonstick.

    2. Recently attended a demonstration on Saladmaster. The set seems really nice but as you know pricy. Doing some research, I found Maxam Cookware, which seems very much like the Saladmaster cookware. Do you know anything about them? Do you recommend using surgical stainless steel cookware.

    Thank-you for your time. Enjoy reading your information.

    • I don’t recommend buying a whole line of cookware (many of the set never get used) but rather purchasing a few items that are the right type/size for your kitchen. I don’t recommend ANY nonstick cookware. See my blog on Quality Cookware re. stainless quality.

  46. Any conclusive proof that aluminium cookware are toxic, or does this still hold true?


    or this


    “The vast majority of mainstream scientists now believe that if aluminum plays any role at all in Alzheimer’s, that role is small.”

    “. . . most mainstream health professionals believe, based on current knowledge, that exposure to aluminum is not a significant risk factor. Public health bodies sharing this conviction include the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Health Canada. . .”

    “Further, it is unlikely that people can significantly reduce their exposure to aluminum through such measures as avoiding aluminum-containing cookware, foil, beverage cans, medications and other products.”

    • Conclusive proof? Who knows, but here’s what I do: I significantly reduce my exposure to aluminum by not taking meds, using canned sodas or aluminum-containing cookware. And on the rare occasion that I do need to cover something in the oven with aluminum, I make sure that the aluminum doesn’t touch the food.

  47. why on earth do you want to frighten people , the chance of harm is very small .I am 82 years old and have used aluminium pans all my life I am still active in mind & body its the proof of the pudding

  48. Are GraniteWare granite pots and pans non-toxic? Their website describes it as “The real ceramic porcelain surface is naturally nonstick, contains no PFOA, PTFE or other harmful chemicals”.

    • Correct. GraniteWare is “real ceramic” and the ceramic and underlying metal are so thin that they easily chip and therefore must be discarded.

  49. Thank you Rebbecca for your expertise. I appreciate the forum. Well here I am spending alot more cash than I wanted too, but don’t want to settle for low to mid-price range toxic cookware. Even expensive brands can be questionable as well. FYI everybody, wmfamericas.com is having a DEEPLY DISCOUNTED SALE on SILIT right now. I just had to jump on some stuff. Their running out of stock on some items so hurry!

    What do you think of Emile Henry? I just purchased their ceramic 4.2 quart Flame Top casserole/oven. Got a 20% discount by purchasing @ Bed & Bath online and bringing coupon into store for adjustment. They say they are lead and cadmium free. I tend to believe this, coming from an established French company such as this one. Do you agree? I hope I don’t break it , but think if a crack happened to develop, they might be good about a replacement.

    Any opinion on Duralex glassware? for glasses, plates and food storage. Their hard tempered and made in France.

    • Enamel cookware is non-reactive (i.e. doesn’t contain metals that could leach like lead or cadmium). All glassware is also nonreactive.

  50. Hi Rebecca, thanks for the info on non-toxic cookware. I am now worried about the ceramic dinnerware that I use to place my food everyday. Do those plain white ceramic plates and mugs which have a glossy finish contain ceramic glaze? I am looking at my mug right now and it has tiny scratches at the bottom. Is it still safe to use? Thank you in advance for your advice.

  51. OK?! WHAT are were supposed to use to cook food with? All these articles tell you which is bad for you none offer any good alternatives!!! Should we cook on a stone?!

  52. What is your opinion on Berndes ceramic cookware (in pearl) that is made in Germany? They claim to be PTFE PFOA Cadmium and Lead free. Is it safe to use?

  53. I seem to be a little late to the thread, but i was hoping for some input. I’m looking to replace all my cookware with healthy alternatives. What a challenge! especially on a budget. This has been a process and very educational.

    What do you think of the high end Silit ceramic coated cookware made in Germany? They seem like a really good company. The coating and bonding process make the surface extra hard and durable. I don’t really see their cookware ever “wearing thin” and toxic metals leaking through. Cheaper ceramic coated pans I could see that happening.

    I looked into the 100% ceramic Ceramcor brand pans and my concern with them is that they can break easy and are expensive.

    Thats the stovetop any suggestions for the oven? A bake dish Clay? glass? ceramic?

    Thank you

    • In my experience, Silit is top of the line and I’ve daily used the same Ceramcor cookware since 2008 and I’m yet to break one. Yes, quality cookware is pricy, but it’s long lasting. Clay, ceramic and glass all work well for the oven and, as possible, clay and ceramic are superior to glass.

  54. Hi Rebecca,

    Great post, as I learnt a lot about toxins. I just got married, and we are looking to purchase our first cookware set. To be honest, I am a bit confused regarding what is “safe” from your post. We generally only use four products;
    1) Frying pan – for chicken, eggs, re-heating leftovers etc…
    2) Stock pot – For pastas, rice, boiling vegetables etc..
    3) Sauce pot – For tea, soups etc..
    4) Wok – For stir frying

    Looking through your post, I see you mostly only recommend 100% ceramic, but I have had trouble finding 100% ceramic for the above mentioned. Can you please recommend what we should go for? We were looking at ZWILLING brand for a new set. We currently using mostly non-stick regular pans.

    Thank you,


    • For frying eggs, I use cast iron or stainless steel.
      For stock-pot, stainless steel.
      Saucepot–ceramic or enamel
      Wok–carbon steel

      Don’t waste your money on any reactive non-stick cookware such as ZWILLING.

  55. Thanks so much for your confirmation. Thank God that I have stumbled into this webpage before I made my purchase.
    Which brand make good carbon steel wok? In my country, the department stores carries mostly the non-stick coated woks (and expensive), due to the demand in the market.

    Also, should I throw out my electric rice cooker as all of them uses non-stick coating for their inner pot and start steaming my rice in an ceramic pot? What about those non-stick baking pans??? I am paranoid now. haha

    • There are electric rice cookers with stainless steel inserts. I’ve no brands to recommend when it comes to the woks but they’re out there.

  56. Hi Rebecca, thanks so much for sharing your valuable experience. I am looking to buy a good wok for Chinese stir frying and occassional deep frying. I saw that you endorsed on the Silit cookware in a reply to an earlier question but they seems to me to be also of non-stick coating that you have advised to stay away.

    Similary, Le Creuset also has a non-stick pan. Does this belong to the non-stick that you mentioned to stay away?


    In your opinion, which will make a better stir-frying pan/work – Silit or Le Creuset?

    One last question. In Asia, a Korean company Happy calls has a few series of pans that is gaining a lot of attention and popularity – (1) double pans (2) Alumite ceramic pots (3) diamond pans. I supposed they belong to the non-stick and ceramic coated pans that we should aviod. There is a link to their website http://myhappycall.co.kr/en/.


    • You’re right, Happy Call uses “ceramic coating” and therefore are not recommended.

      Silit and Le Creuset are both enamel. I personally, however, prefer carbon steel for a wok because the purpose of cooking in a wok is quick heat transfer and you don’t get that in a cast-enamel pot.

  57. Hi ,Rebecca.thank you for your great knowledge on this.after reading your artical i have rung my God mother and my aunty to tell themto throw away all their alluminium cookware.i threw mine away years ago ,so did my mum but now i have more reason to tell other people to do the same.Being Asian,i do a lot of frying and stir fry so a good non stick wok is very vital.i have been using stone coated cookware and quite happy until i read this.so in short:
    -stay clear alluminium,non-stick,anything coated?
    -best to use 100% ceramic and porclan?
    -use cast iron for dry and non acidy food.?
    I am planing to buy a chinese carbon steel wok and “cure” it so it wont stick ( i had a restaurant years ago and saw my cook done it)
    Rebecca,any idea what is the best cast iron wok should be like?
    Also should i better off use my stainless steel sauce pans for soup and deep fry or my 100% ceramic with shiny glazed all over ones?
    Greaty appriciated

    • Yes, you’ve summarized the guidelines well. Yes, use stainless or ceramic for soup. For a wok, I prefer carbon steel and it works well for deep-frying.

  58. What about the Lodge line of cast iron? I’m concerned about the their line Porcelain Enameled Cast Iron and Lodge Elements made in China versus their Lodge Logic line made in the U.S. Love your articles!

    • I’ve not used the Lodge line so I can’t offer first hand input. The marine grade stainless is indeed top quality. As Lodge says that their China-made enamel is made “according to their specifications” be in touch with them directly to see what this means.

  59. Thanks for the safety health information about cookware.
    How about carbon steel woks and Bodum Chambord enamel coated cast iron woks. I know Le crueset is a good brand and expensive. What about Bodum Chambord brand?

    • The point of a wok is for quick heat transfer. That’s why I use and recommend carbon steel. Whereas a heavy cast enamel pot better absorbs and retains heat and so is best for other applications.

  60. Dear Ms. Rebecca,

    I really appreciate your help to give us the best healthy food , I want to know your opinion regarding Zepter stainless steel. I watched the demo and it seems that the pan in non stick pan. Also do you have any idea if they put harmful material to their cookware to avoid sticking than normal stainless steel .
    Waiting for your reply , Once more thank you for your great help .

    • Zepter pots are a quality stainless steel (AISI 304) that use a surface finishing process (the opposite to electroplating) that increases the concentration of chrome (Cr) on the surface of the bottom of the pan. This nearly doubles the chrome content in the first 0.5-1 micron of the surface which creates the non-stick ability. Check out online reviews to determine if these pots will suit your needs.

  61. Dear Ms. Rebecca,

    I really appreciate your help to give us the best healthy food , but I want to know a specific reply about first titanium cookware made in Germany , they stated it is very health even if it is scratched , please do not tell me to go back to the related link because it makes me more confused , please give me your opinion about this brand specifically.

    Once more thank you for your time & great help

    • Perhaps you’ll be willing to help me. All non-stick cookware is reactive and therefore NOT recommended (even if it contains titanium). So by using that information alone, is your confusion resolved? Kindly advise me.

  62. Hi and thank you for your very useful tips.
    My wife intends to buy a set of ceramic coated cookware made by Pedrini of Italy. Could you please advice me on safety of these cookware set. Thanks in advance.

  63. Hi Rebecca! Is clay cookware safe? Can you recommend a clay pot manufacturer? Do you prefer Xtrema ceramic cookware over clay pots? Thanks!

    • You’ll find your answers in the links in this blog (100% Ceramic and Food Tastes Best when Cooked in Clay). Depending upon what I’m cooking, I use clay, ceramic, stainless, enamel or cast-iron.

      • Rebecca, all this talk of toxic cookware has got me thinking about what we bathe in. Bathtubs are made of a lot of the same materials as what we cook in, and worse! And here we are soaking our entire bodies in hot water inside a toxic casing of plastics, lead, and acrylic paints! Imagine what dreadful byproducts get leeched into our bodies on a daily basis. We just had our bathtub refinished and the smell was unbearable. However, 3 days after the job, we already see cracks and ripples on the floor of the tub. The floor of the tub feels “sticky” and feels like a combination of paint and glue. Obviously, the refinish is porous and leeching its components into our tub and skin with each bath. Perhaps you could do an article on green bathrooms as well? Bathing is such an important ritual that SHOULD be clean and healthy. In reality, it is the leading cause of lead poisioning and respiratory problems, among others. Your daily shower, bath is where you are exposed to the majority of the toxins in your home. Its frustrating because I’ve scoured the internet and asked local remodelers and there seems to be no answer to this. Its just a toxic vessel. Period. The only option is to stop taking baths and limit the amount of time in your shower. I miss my dead sea salt soaks. But what about our children and babies who have to bathe in tubs? Rebecca, PLEASE devote an article to this topic. It would be much appreciated!!!

  64. Ozari Green Earth pans say they are 100% ceramic but are priced WAY less than other ceramic pans. I have read your articles many times trying to figure out if the Ozari pans are safe as my wife is extremely sensitive. Please provide a direct answer if you can. Also are BEKA 100% ceramic pans safe? Please I need guidance

    • Ceramic coated cookware is NOT a true ceramic and not recommended. Look again at the products you mention and you’ll see the terms “coated” and “non-stick.”

      • Is ceramic coated cookware the same thing as ceramic glaze? I ask because xtrema does a ceramic glaze on their tea kettle. (It is so hard to find non toxic tea ware).

        How do you feel about Le Creuset? Their tea kettle and cookware is enamel on steel, however they phrase it as “finished with a porcelain enamel finish” which sounds an awful lot like the “coated” versions you’ve recommended we stay away from.

        Sorry to pepper you with questions, but you seem to be one of the few who knows what they’re talking about regarding this.

        • Ceramic glaze is a non-reactive ceramic top coat. It’s what potters traditionally use. What we steer clear of are synthetic (polymer) “ceramic” coated, non-stick pans that are simply a “plastic” stuck to a metal pan. The porcelain enamel finish of Le Creuset is excellent and non-reactive.

  65. I was wondering if the silit silargan cookware is a good option for someone who has a nickel allergy and is unable to handle heavier pots/pans that are 100% ceramic. is there any danger with any other metals like chromium seeping into your food with silit? do you find that the xtrema cookware is heavy to handle?

    • Enamel on cast iron pots are heavy. However enamel on steel (such as Silit) are less so. All enamel cookware is non-reactive. Email Xtrema and ask the weights of the pans you’re considering, then you can determine.

  66. Ozari Green Earth pans say they are 100% ceramic but are priced WAY less than other ceramic pans. I have read your articles many times trying to figure out if the Ozari pans are safe as my wife is extremely sensitive. Please provide a direct answer if you can. Also are BEKA 100% ceramic pans safe?

  67. so confusing reading all this. So you recommend only using 100% ceramic cookware and nothing else?

    • I prefer ceramic cookware for most uses. However I also rely on my stainless steel pressure cooker, my cast iron crepe pans, and my cast enamel and enamel on steel cookware. Simply be aware of your options and chose accordingly.

  68. Rebecca,
    Do you have any recommendation on electric pannini presses? what are your thoughts on non-stick brands available out there like Cuisinart, etc?
    thank you

    • I’d warm the sandwich on a cast iron pot or crepe pan and “press” it with a heavy lid rather than buying yet another gadget; and a non-stick one at that.

  69. I was surprised to find a ‘new brand’ of ‘green cookware’ in my health food shop called neoflam with an ‘ecolon coating’ (https://www.neoflam.com.au).
    The word coating got me suspicious – however I wonder if you can cast an opinion please? it has thrown me that they are endorsed by the, usually fussy health food shop and another organic distributor.
    Thanks so much.

  70. Just wanted to point out that your comment about aluminum being a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease is unfounded. Recent reports in the New England Journal of Medicine and other have cast aside this notion as their is no direct link, risk between aluminum and Alzheimer. In fact there is no medical research that backs that claim.

    • While there may be no “direct link” according to this recent study, consider the information below and avoid aluminum cookware!

      “Aluminum does turn up in higher amounts than normal in some autopsy studies of Alzheimer’s patients, but not in all.” http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/controversial-claims-risk-factors

      “The hypothesis that Aluminum significantly contributes to Alzheimer’s Disease is built upon very solid experimental evidence and should not be dismissed. Immediate steps should be taken to lessen human exposure to Aluminum, which may be the single most aggravating and avoidable factor related to Alzheimer’s Disease.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21157018

  71. What would you recommend as a good broiler pan? These are hard to find in 100% ceramic. Most of them are porcelain coated. I believe I have a cheap one by Range Kleen. I’m assuming if this scratches that I’m being exposed to toxins? Thanks for your help.

    • The porcelain coated range pans that come with an oven are typically sturdy and scratch resistant. If it chips, it would then be reactive. I’d keep what you have and not worry.

  72. Have read and retread your article a number of times, have been looking at the Silit range of frypans, they state they are made from ultra hard ceramic and high gloss ceramic exterior finish. Would you consider these to be a safe and good option? Thank you

      • Thank you, appreciate the reply. Did just see an article to suggest the ceramic can contain lead, what is your opinion. Thanks again

        • Yes, antique ceramic cookware and some imports may contain lead. As lead content is FDA regulated, any brand name line of ceramic cookware available today, no matter country of origin, is lead free.

  73. can someone please tell me what effect the residue that is left on some ceramic delph when scratched by stainless steel
    or crome plated cutlery

  74. Hi Rebecca, thanks for this great article… I have been using un-glazed handmade clay pots for over a year now and loving it.  Initilly it was a little different than cooking in metals but now I’am so used to it that i cant go back. The food tastes much better and knowing that its metal, chemical and glaze free is good! I’ve replaced most of my metal pot and pans with it and I’m glad I did so.

  75. Hi,
    Thank you for some valuable tips/inputs about various cookware in the market.
    On doing some research i find that aluminum is toxic. I want to buy the tri-ply ALL-CLAD stainless steel cookware. This has a layer of aluminum. Is this safe?

    Please explain. Thank you

    • Any quality stainless steel pot has an inner layer of a metal, most typically aluminum, for enhanced heat conduction. Because the aluminum in a tri-ply pot is sandwiched between stainless layers, the pot is non-reactive.

  76. You seem to speak with much authority, can you please share with me where you obtained your data? What studies are you referencing and can you please provide a link to them? I’ve found many similar sites talking about various unhealthy things but rarely do they provide any specific studies; instead they are simply regurgitating false information.

    • Thanks for your question. Yes, a lot of what I report is based upon my 40 plus years experience as an investigative food journalist. What specific question do you have? And I’ll answer.
      But if its about ceramic coating then perhaps common sense will provide the answer. Any synthetic (i.e. a “ceramic” coating) applied to a metal is less durable than the metal itself and in time will erode.

  77. I also wondered if you can help me , I have an induction hob and have just bought the emille henry tagine without realising it would not work without using an induction disc , the emille Henry one has mixed reviews , do you know if it is non toxic ,or of any others that may be better and non toxic , thank you so much for your guidance it’s invaluable, I have ME CFS ,allergies etc and cannot thank you enough for sharing

    • I’d do an on line search. As food won’t come in contact with the disk. reactivity is not your concern. Rather which disk is most functional.

  78. Thank you for the great information,I have villeroy boch oven to tableware products .i think they are porcelain are they non toxic .

  79. Hello Rebecca,

    I am looking for a large deep fry pan that isn’t very heavy to lift.You say Le Creuset is a good brand…they have a Forged Hard-Anodized Nonstick Deep Fry Pan, is this a good healthy choice?

    Thank you

  80. My apologies since you have answered this question in one form or another a few times on here. But I was looking at Calphalon ceramic enamel pans, are these something that you would deem is okay? Are they at all in same realm of safety as le creuset?

    Also what about anodized? Thank you so much for your time and knowledge.

    • I do NOT recommend any non-stick ceramic surface because its not a true ceramic. It’s a scam and totally unlike real ceramic such as Le Creuset. Anodized is a hardened aluminum and not recommended.

      • Thank you very much. I should have paid better attention and noticed that Calphalon claimed to be non-stick. Is there anything other than Le Creuset or Xtrema that you would recommend? Thank you again, this site is truly helpful and such a relief!

        • You’re welcome. See the accompanying articles on Healthy Cookware and Ceramic Cookware. I have a range of cookware and use different pots for different purposes.

  81. Hi Rebecca,

    GREAT site! I am so confused. I just purchased Terre D’Umbria, pot and lid terracotta from DeSilva in Italy from TJMaxx. It does not say the pot and lid are lead free. It is a red glazed lid and exterior with an orange glazed interior. Do you have any information on this?

    Many thanks for your help!

    A. Perlette

    • Here’s what the company says:
      The lead content in the pot is minimum, it meets Directive EEC 84/500 15/10/84 and Cal.Prop.65 for leachable Lead and Cadmium in ceramic ware.
      Please consider that as soon as our containers arrive in US, they are checked by FDA.
      Test reports are carried out by an authorized and certified company.Obviously we can guarantee for our products and not for those of other competitors.
      You can also contact us writing back at export@desilvaceramiche.it.
      At disposal for any further information you may need,

  82. You mentioned nylon cooking utensils (spoons spatulas?) should not be used for cooking. Can you recommend an alternative beside wood? I would like to get a ceramic or enameled ( le creuset type) skillet and am not sure is a stainless steel spatula will scratch that or not. Thanks!

    • Yes, metal can scratch enamel and ceramic surfaces. I use wooden utensils and (taking care to not overheat them) silicone spatulas. I favor silicon over nylon as the former has greater heat resistance. Nylon melts at 400 degrees F. and is more reactive than silicone which degrades at 600 degrees.

  83. Cookware made with non stick Teflon coating today, are made without PFOA materials. Although I personally do not use non stick coated pans, the facts are Teflon has been reformulated and new polymers are now sold to manufacturers without PFOA or any similiar product. Just an FYI.

    • Yes, in 2014 Dupont (manufacturer of Teflon) and other companies will phase out the use of cancer-causing PFOAs in their non-stick products.

      However PFOA is being replaced by a newer non-stick technology, PTFE. As per my blog, I do NOT recommend PTFE coated cookware.

      • PTFE is and always has been Teflon. As of last fall, 2013, all Teflon products, including PTFE are no longer made with PFOA. That includes clothing, industrial products and the 2 or 3 microns of coating on the cookware you mention. The products are hundreds of times safer than previous technology and selling like gangbusters by the way.

  84. i am looking for a 100 % ceramic cookware ( saucepans especially) that have handles that don’t overheat. I see extrema offer products with handle covers. does this necessarily mean that the handles get hot? if so are there any 100 % ceramic products with a different kind of handle that are more suited to those of us who are forgetful frequently burn them selves?

    • I would say that metal cookware is not the safest… When I learnt about metals and chemicals getting into our food, I moved on to pure clay cookware (miriams earthen cookware). The ones I have are lead and cadmium free, most importantly it holds all the nutrients in the food and cooks evenly.

  85. I was given some cookware by my mother-in-law recently. I googled them and came up with the following information. I would like to ask if they are non-reactive and safe to use for cooking as they claimed. Please kindly advise. Thanks.

    F.I.R. had been recognized universally to promote health and treat various diseases including cancers, thanks to its ability to detoxify and activate cells. Through over 10 years of experiments, it is also strongly proven that F.I.R. can do miracles to food.

    DNI offers the only health care cookware in the world! Now, you can stop worrying on harms that food brings. Not only would it rids of toxins and all other harmful particles including food chemicals and radiations from electrical stoves, DNI cookwares also increase food oxygen and nutrients to the maximum point. Food becomes healthy, nutritious and non-heaty.

    What is more, save more when F.I.R. helps you to cook faster and of course, 100% fumeless. Yes, say goodbye to greasy kitchens and exhaust fans! Also, play a part in the green movement to save world from pollutions.

    With continuous usage, it could effectively treat and prevent health problems like gastric, uric acid, goiter, high cholesterol, arthritis, heaty body and even cancers.

    • The only online info I can find about Indonesian-made DNI Bio Energy FIR cookware doesn’t add up. And those are pretty amazing, shall we say, unbelievable, claims. What is your pan made of? Does it have a non-stick surface? If it has a non-stick surface, don’t use it.

  86. Thank you for your informative site. Can you use stainless steel whisks and utensils in stainless steel saucepans and bowls with safety or will it scratch them and then they leach nickel? (I have seen so many cooking shows and restaurants where they do this). One of your blogs says – ‘Once scratched, all stainless steel, will impart metallic ions into food’, however it seems inevitable this will happen. If stainless steel utensils are not suitable, what do you recommend that whisks and stirring spoons are made of? Silicon?

    • Not to worry. Scouring stainless steel is not recommended but by all means use your metal whisk and stainless utensils, albeit with a gentle touch.

  87. Hello
    I have a question about STONE coating cookwares. I want to buy something healthy and these kind of cookwares are recently advertised. How are they? the ones with stone layers. and also some with “reinforced with particles of silicon and aluminum, naturally occurring minerals in the form of rock material” label. PLEASE HELP ME I AM CONFUSED…

  88. I left my kitchen aid stainless steel tea kettle on the stove top until all the water dissipated and the kettle changed color on the bottom inside and out due to such high temperatures. My question is if heating up any piece of stainless steel cookware to this point would cause ill health effects with continued use. Thanks much

  89. I have a Le Creuset dutch oven and it’s coating is chipping in several places down to the iron. I know cast iron is safe to use, but should I be concerned about the chipped coating?I don’t know what it’s made from. Thanks!!

    • The enamel that coats the cast iron is non-reactive, but where do the enamel fragments go as those chips enlarge? Into your soup! Best to pass on ingesting chips of glass-like enamel.

      Yes, cast iron is “safe” when cooking non-acidic foods or dry foods. But its iron and other metals leach into acid foods (tomatoes, wine, lemons, etc) as well as liquids. I use cast iron for pancakes and steaks but never for soups, sauces or anything with an acid ingredient.

      • Thanks for your feedback! It looks like my original post was edited or somehow part of it got deleted. When I typed my post I had wrote that I had a La Creuset “knock-off” from a particular store. I want to clarify that I did not have a La Creuset pot chip. I would hope at that price level, the quality would be better! 😉 I do think I will make the investment in one of those. But is there any reason to be concerned with the enamel in other brands?

        • Oh, thanks for your clarification. So perhaps you’ll tell us the brand of your inexpensive enamel pot that others can learn from your experience. To answer your question, enamel is non-toxic. However thin layers chip and you don’t want to ingest either the enamel or be exposed to the metal that underlies the enamel.

          • My pot was from World Market… it was the store brand. I love the pot… great size, pretty color. It was from about 3 years ago and they have since changed their design so I don’t know if the chipping would still be an issue. I still think I am going to go ahead and get a high quality brand instead.

          • Hello Rebecca,

            I am very happy & grateful to stumbled upon to your website. Can you tell me if IKEA stainless steel pots or safe? I have been making soup with these pots. Here is their website info http://m.ikea.com/us/en/catalog/products/art/00101160/. Thank you advance for your experience opinion. I’m worrying about the metal that made the pot. I know aluminum is bad after reading your website.

  90. I have been using my AMC stainless steel pans for over 40years. They hold a lifetime guarantee. I use the minimum of water if steaming or boiling and a smear of cooking oil if I want to fry or roast. I have never had any problems with pitting or scratching and thankfully I have never burned anything whilst using them. I have cooked with them on the hob and in the oven. They were pretty expensive when we bought them but I love them and they look as good now as they did when I first got them. I think the company is South African

  91. Rebecca,

    I use Emile Henry cookware and have always believed it to be safe. It is ceramic and made in France of burgundy clay. Have you tried this line? What is your opinion of it?

  92. I ask xtrema and ceramcor customer service where their products are made in and they told me in China that made me hold back ordering from them. Do you have any suggestion for USA made products. I have 1 more question that what is the best choice for a tock pot. I am using stainless steel but I’m concerned about its food reactive.Thank you for your time.

    • I veer away from Chinese-made products that lack a legitimate paper trail demonstrating quality. Look on Ceramcor’s web page to see test results on their product. It is indeed “clean.”

    • anh — stainless steel is the best for all cooking, except where the food tends to stick to pan. Even then, a good fat will stop it from sticking – NOT PAM (or other brands, it’s made from GMO soy lecithin.
      Stainless steel has been attacked by conspiracy theorists for decades now, but it doesn’t leach any appreciable amounts of nickel or chromium into food. It’s “self healing”, if you scratch it, the scratch immediately forms protective surface.

  93. Hi rebecca,
    I have to fry fish and egg at regular basis, as i do not like preserved cooked food. and do not have much time, as i am a student. so non-stick is important for me. Could you PLZ PLZ suggest me which is better: PTFE and PFOA free nonstick fry pan? or white bright ceramic coated fry pan? or any other alternative that DO NOT STICK FOOD…

    • There are so many quick ways to prepare fish and eggs besides frying; and when you want to fry, use more fat to prevent sticking. If you simply MUST have a nonstick pan, then I’d check out customer reviews as some non-stick pots are a better quality product. My guess is that the more pricy ones are probably better quality. But as soon as you see it degrade, toss it…..and then, perhaps, you’ll be game to replace it with a decent pot.

      • Thanks for your reply Rebecca. you are really great. I am waiting for your review. and yes, I will NOT use it when it degrades. and I do have heavy weight iron pans in my country… I need nonsticks just for my one year study plan in an overseas country. and plz note that, I may not be able to buy the pots that are too expensive. rather suggest me if I can buy a PTFE and PFOA free nonsticks that are available in retail shops like Japanhome. Thanks again!

        • Kashifa — you mentioned cast iron cookware. It was tested and found to leach up to 2600mg of iron into food. That’s a massive amount, a typical Iron supplement may be 30mg or less. My wife was tested and found to have high levels od iron, then I read the cookware test article and told her to stop using the cast iron pan, and her iron level fell down.
          I agree though, cast iron will give you best results for flavour and texture.

  94. Rebecca,

    I have just stumbled across this and another of your articles on my search for answers about my new stainless steel cookware set. Thanks so much for the info.

    I purchased a cheap stainless set by “sunbeam” from a “liquidation world” type retail store, but I’m noticing that there is no designation (such as 18-10 or 316) for the alloy type.

    I just found out today both that nickel can be a concern, and that there are so many variations of stainless steel, simply any element or scrap metal can be included in the product you’re buying. I find this a little alarming; though the cookware set does say “stainless” steel, it could contain any amount of reactive elements.

    have you heard of this phenomenon or could you point me in the direction to find out what is really included in this product?

    Thanks in advance, ill be “adding you to my bookmarks” right away!

    • Stainless steel is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass. It’s the chromium which makes it relatively non-reactive; whereas carbon steel has less chromium and rusts.

      High quality cookware often uses 18/10 (18% chromium and 10% nickel) but you may also find 18/0 or that which is nickel free.

      If you do not scour or scratch your pots, the protective passive film of chromium oxide will effectively block corrosion and keep your pot non-reactive no matter what metals it might contain. So if a food scorches, soak it with water and baking soda or salt until you can easily remove the burned matter without scratching your pots.

      So in the meantime, enjoy your pots.

    • I don’t know. Look for the company information online (or write to them) to find out what they’re made of and then, using the guidelines in my article, you’ll have your answer 🙂

  95. Aloha, So what type of mugs do not contain lead? I know glass but I like ceramic mugs….would the Le Creuset be the best choice? I should throw out all my Starbucks mugs huh? I notice that they looked scratched.(black marks)

    • Perhaps the black marks in your mugs are coffee or tea stains? If so, a little clorox will remove them. 100% ceramic mugs are non reactive.

  96. Rebecca, Thank you for all your helpful comments. I am interested in buying stonedine cookware. Are they safe to use?

  97. Hi,
    What do you think about dr. Mercola 100% ceramic cookware?
    Are they worth to buy? I live in Europe and they can deliver it to me, but I wanted to make sure, that they are safe.

    • The line you mention is made by Ceramcor. For 10% off on this excellent product, click on the Ceramcor link you’ll find in the right column of my web page.

  98. Hi Rebecca

    I fully understand now “Non-stick” pan is not good to use anymore, very dangerous too. Thank you so much for telling us!

    I recently found there has a new cooking ware in the market called “Nano-Ceramic Cookware” (or called Blanc Nano-ceramic cookware)- white colour surface frypan, wok, baking tray, soup pot etc., they said Nano material from Korea, but believe that they are made in China……

    Anyway, I am looking for a new & safe frying pan…… as I fry fish and meat frequently. Do you know this kind of new technology? Is it safe for high temperture cooking daily?

    Another query is: regarding Le Creuset cookware, they also have white colour coating cookware, is it safe too?

    Thank you so much for your advise.

    With warm regards
    Lisa from Hong Kong

  99. Hi Rebecca, never mind question re waterless vapo seal cookware/salad master. I think I got companies mixed up on web. I am sold on Ceramcor xtrema cookware. This is just what I’ve been looking for. Your site was very informative in ruling out other things. Ceramcor sells nylon cooking tools. I am assuming this better than plastic tools? They also recommend wooden spoons. Which do you prefer? Also if this cookware gets scratched is it only cosmetic or do I need to replace? Thank you! -C

    • Ceramcor’s silicon (not nylon) cooking tools are non reactive. As the pots are 100% ceramic, they’re non-reactive scratches or otherwise.

    • Nylon tools don’t belong to any kitchen. Altho, being very cheap, they are quite popular. As long as I was in the work force, nylon was never approved for contact with food. So these utensils puzzle me, I feel it’s another case of massive corruption of FDA, approving something that’s (potentially) toxic to humans, for a huge bribe.
      BTW — did you know DuPont was recently (2, 3 years ago,?) convicted in US court for lying about “safety” of Teflon (PTFE?), and fined 18 millions dollars. It’s what they earn in a day, of a week, a joke.

  100. Hi Rebecca, Thank you so much for your informational website. I am looking into the Chantal Enamel on Steel Cookware. You stated that Chantal is one of your favorites 🙂 My question is, does Chantal also provide evidence of no chromium or lead in their Enamel like Xtrema does? I”m more concerned with how easy it Xtrema pots are to break in my house with children around!

    Thank you for your time,

    • The enamel in Chantal is glass and so it would not contain chromium or lead; but you can ask the company directly.
      I find the Xtrema pots are very durable.

  101. Does the non-stick waxy coating on parchment paper contain the same horrible chemical that is in Teflon? I’ve been reading that microwave popcorn bags and fast food sandwich wrappers contain that chemical, and many health websites are saying parchment paper does too. It’s just hard to know what is true and what is hype. If it is true, I think I will start using brown paper bags for cooking, instead of parchment paper. I would love to have your thoughts.

    • I am glad you asked, I have been wondering myself. Microwave popcorn packages and take out packages are coated with evil chemical (sorry I forget the name, I don’t need it, I don’t eat out) to keep all the trans fats (yammy) inside, not to ooze out.

  102. Greetings,
    Do you know anything about Zepter cookware? The company position it’s product as very healthy. It is very expensive. Mostly popular in Europe.
    Thanks a lot!

  103. Good day,

    I have really enjoyed your site and feedback. I have been eagerly looking for healthy flatware (forks, knives, spoons) to eat with. If stainless steel can leach toxins, does it not stand to reason that flatware can as well? Most flatware are either plastic or stainless steel and this worries me greatly. Please advise- I look forward to your advice! Thanks!

    • You’re welcome. Enjoy your stainless steel flatware. As it is prolonged and high temperatures that increase the ion exchange in stainless steel, flatware is safe.

  104. Hi,

    I was wondering what you thought about the German brand Silit? They have their own ceramic coating that they say is non reactive but it is still a coating.

    Your thoughts on this would be valued.

    • The brand Slilt is traditional and legitimate ceramic cookware and non reactive. What you want to avoid is the synthetic non-stick so called “ceramic” cookware.

      • admin — I have a question about cearamic cookware. How is the heat conductivity? As far I know, ceramic doesn’t conduct heat as well as metal. When I was very poor, I had a set of glass cookware, and it was fine, VERY INEXPENSIVE, but it had this “time delay” reaction (slow heat transfer), which was very inconvenient for cooking.
        What is the cooking experience with ceramic? It is quite costly, and I don’t want to splurge, only to find out I don’t like it.

  105. How about wear ever ceramic cooking surface.they say it does not contain any metals like cadmium or any polymers. Is it ok to broil and fry ?

  106. Hi, I m looking for rice cooker with non toxic inner pot. But most of the brand with non stick coating. The brand, Buffalo, claims that their inner pot with stainless steel clad for outer & inner & aluminium at center layer. Is this safe? Please advise. Thanks.

    • Yes a rice cooker with a stainless steel inner pot is the most healthful choice. To preserve its non-reactivity, if it ever gets scorched, soak rather than scour off burned food.

    • A inner pot with outer & inner of stainless steel clad, but aluminium as centre layer, is that considered as good stainless steel pot for health? Pls advise. Thanks.

  107. Hi there! I was researching non-toxic cookware and was very happy to stumble upon your article, Rebecca. Thanks very much. I have a question that no doubt will reveal the seemingly limitless depths of my ignorance about this subject: I looked at the Le Creuset site, and it says that their cast iron is porcelain coated, which I thought meant that it was indeed enameled/ceramic coated?

    Could you tell me the difference between their porcelain coated products and other brands’ ceramic/enameled products?

    Any light you could shed on this would be very helpful. I’m finding the process of information-gathering on this subject to be very arduous, all kids of conflicting information…thanks a lot!

    • You’re welcome!
      Porcelain enamel is made by fusing powdered glass to a metal substrate by firing, typically between 1,382 and 1,562 °F. Any brand of enamel cookware is made with this process.

      “Ceramic” coated cookware is a marketing ploy. While a ceramic coating can take higher temperatures 850F than the PTFE (thermal plastic) coating it scratches within a year of normal use.

      Yes, Le Crueuset’s skillets with black enameled interiors better withstand higher cooking temperatures.

  108. Thank you Rebecca for posting this information. Toxic cookware is an issue becoming more prevalent by the day and its by awareness that we will be able to hopefully put an end to this epidemic.
    With regards to ALL CLAD…though it is made of high quality stainless steel and void of a nonstick surface, even stainless steel, when heated can be leaching heavy metals and toxins into your food. Currently SALADMASTER produces the only non-toxic cookware in the world. This cookware is made from a 316 stainless steel with titanium. This grade of stainless steel, 316, does not expand and contract while heating and this prevents any metals from leaching out of your pan and into your food. With a simple baking soda soda test (heating baking soda water on high until almost boiled out) you can taste what subtances, if any, are leaching out of your pans. With the SALADMASTER cookware, I hae noticed that what you put in is what you get out.
    Thanks again for bringing awareness to this issue!

    • At SaladMaster.com it says:
      …provides the maximum resistance to chemical reactions with the salts, acids, and alkalis in the food being prepared.”
      As I read the statement it says “maximum resistance” but it offers no science to back it up. My understanding is that metals are reactive. Kindly provide some data.

  109. Hi Rebecca,

    Am in process of replacing old, scratched cookware with Xtrema, thank you for the 10% discount you arranged with them. I have a Breville Smart Convection oven which I love but just realized it’s got a “non stick ” coating inside the oven walls. After all these years NOT using any teflon or other non stick cookware I”m concerned that I somehow missed this one? Is this different because I’m not putting food directly onto the surface or is it the same thing with chemicals going into the food from the sides of a hot oven? Thanks as ever for your sage advice. Blessings, Jane

    • The only problem with non-stick surfaces on the interior of oven walls is if heated to 500 degrees F. or above, it will emit toxic fumes. So perhaps if you are broiling, turn the kitchen fan on and/or open a window.

  110. I’m concerned that you mentioned to stay away from all nonstick . “All Clad” stainless steel cookware has a stainless steel finsh inside the pans & they are not sold as non-stick pan. Have you seen their pans?? In fact, they have their own non-stick collection. I see a smooth stainless steel interior when I look inside their pans. The difference is instead of a clear surface matching the outside of the pan …it is a smooth surface with circles beginning in the center and going thru out the interior until the pan side. They call it a starburst stainless finish. I chose to consider “All Clad” because of their high quality stainless steel.They are noted to last a lifetime.”ALL Clad” pans cook only in low temperatures because of the 5 layers of aluminum and stainless steel.Furthermore,they require oil or butter to prevent food from sticking. Clean up is easy so long as you use “Bar Keepers Friend” (a non abrasive cleaner) to keep the pot inside polished and looking like new…but then all stainless pots require “Bar Keeper Friend” to maintain their beauty. Did your research find out that “ALL CLad” stainless pans are reactive? Please clarify. I feel like I was missing something when you considered stainless steel nonstick. Thank you so much. This is an enormous expense.

  111. Do you know if the starburst coating inside the AllClad stainless steele is reactive?
    They are easy to clean as a stainles steel finish but one MUST follow the directions.Company says they are not reactive & do not leach.
    Thank you.

    • The “ceramic” coatings on green pans is reactive and therefore not recommended. Ideally your cookware will be non-reactive like enamel, 100% ceramic or stainless steel.

    • Ola, Thanks for your excellent question. Yes, they’re new and I’m yet to see published research. However Teflon maker, DuPont, says:
      Silicone Coatings use synthetic resins that can be applied to specially prepared metal surfaces and bonded to the metal by baking. Sol-Gel, or so-called ceramic coatings, are solvent-based products. Both types tend to lose their nonstick characteristic…...

  112. Corningware cookware:
    Question: Is scratched Corningware safe to still cook with? And is it still safe to use it to store cooked food?
    Thank you.

  113. Thank you for your suggestion. We were advised not to use ceramic coated cookware ,because of metals,polmers etc. therefore,what ceramic cookware brands do you recommend for me to research that are safe.
    Thank you greatly.

  114. Thank you for your suggestion about scratches on stainless steel.I’m still left with not knowing which cookware to purchase . Stainless steel even when careful using wooden utensils and soaking not scouring, my experience is that it will still scratch thus sending out metallic ions. Some of the most expensive pots( All Clad) have scratches from just being handlled at William Solloma stores. I am going thru detox of heavy metals therefore, I need cookware that will not put back into my body that which is being elimanated. Any final suggestions? Enjoy you day! Thanks.

  115. I am researching safe stainless steel cookware. Consumer reports recommends Calphalon Comtemporary ( 3 layers: exterior is stainless steel, then a layer of aluminium, then the interior is stainless steel.Aluminium helps to induct heat. I like also the All Clad d5 line which has 5 layers of stainless steel alternating with aluminum and interior is stainless steel. It claims to have superior even heating.All Clad is made in Pennslyvania,USA were as Calphalon is made in China which make me weary. Do you have thoughts about these 2 cookware sets? Will the All Clad be a better investment?
    Are they safe for not releasing toxins? thanks!

    • Yes. by all means research and in this way you’ll deduce your own personal choice. Stainless steel, no matter it’s country of origin, is stainless steel. Once scratched, all stainless steel, will impart metallic ions into food as I have described. Take care to soak off any burned food rather than scour it off.

  116. Now my housemate and I are wondering about the white Corning Wear pots that we have. Thanks for taking your valuable time to consider our questions.

  117. Le Creuset type ceramic coated iron pots and pans …are these also in the non-stick “so called ceramic” category that you speak of?

  118. Thank you for this helpful information on cookware. I need to replace my stove, and I wondered what you think about induction cooking. Is it safe for food and people?

    • My personal favorites include: Xtrema, Le Creuset and Chantall. I’ve two heavy stainless steel pots (one is a pressure cooker) a carbon steel wok from a Chinese market, and I use cast iron crepe pans for quick breads.

  119. I wrap potatoes and cover food in baking dishes in baker’s paper and THEN wrap foil around it. This way I have the covering of foil that I want, and the food is protected by the baker’s paper from touching the foil.

    Is this a reasonable way to get the benefits of wrapping in foil without the dangers associated with it?

    • Your way would be non-toxic.

      I still don’t get the need for wrapping a potato. It’s skin is an edible, nutritious and no fuss wrapper.

  120. Rebecca, thank you very much for your warning of green pan, and other ceramic-coated pots and pans. You said: “Note: Avoid all ceramic coated cookware. However superior 100% ceramic knives and cookware made from natural substances are non-reactive. Furthermore, cooking in ceramic enhances the flavor of foods as per the link cited above.” Can you please explain what is a ceramic cookware made from natural substances, or what is the best possible choice for non-stick cookware? Thank you very much.

  121. Hi,

    Thank you for the heads up about health risky cookware. I have an idea for cooking potatoes without aluminum foil. Why not try wrapping a potato in a couple cabbage leaves and then cooking it?

    • hmmmmm…interesting. But perhaps a waste of cabbage? Fortunately the skin of the potato adequately prevents the food from drying out and it results in a nice, chewy skin. Surely the suggestion of wrapping foil around a potato was generated by the foil industry and is an idea that we can shed.
      I bake my potatoes directly on the rack of my oven (or toaster oven). Or if I’m baking another food, I put the potatoes alongside, whole or in chunks.

    • Im aware that this is a 2012 post. Our method of cooking potatoes is simple. I owned Fissler Pressure Cooker, we simply wash the potatoes throughly from the dirt. Put in the pressure cooker and done in 12-15 minutes (depending on the size of the potatoes). The skin of the potatoes easily peel off when remove from the pressure cooker. It tastes great, the moist, the tenderness is just perfect.

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